Foods that are rich in minerals
All foodstuffs we eat contain some mineral materials, but some are richer than others generally, and some are notably rich in one or more mineral substances.
For instance, whole meals prepared from cereals are rich in phosphates which are obviously of importance to the human being and animals for the formation of the hard part of bones.
Some green vegetables are very rich in lime, which like phosphates, provides most of the material from which most of the hard substances of bones are composed. Milk is rich in these ingredients also.
Three-quarters percent of milk consists of elements which although described in analyses as mineral ash, are present in a considerable extent in forms which are much more easily as simulated by the human being than the bare ash composition would indicate.
It is very uncertain as to the forms in which the so-called mineral constituents of milk exist, but their value in diet is probably unsurpassed by minerals from any other source.
Iron, which is essential for blood formation, is found in a suitable form in liver, egg yolk, green leafy vegetables, and wheatmeal. Fish and other sea foods are valuable sources of iodine, which is essential in the prevention of goitre.
Foods that are rich in essential vitamins
Broadly speaking, vitamins may be said to be divided into two groups, one of which is carried in fats like butterfat and the other is carried with other substances and is soluble in water.
Thus we have vitamin A which is a growth-promoting vitamin, vitamin D which is rickets preventing both soluble in fat and present in butterfat. A substance which gives yellow coloration to butterfat and which we call carotene is the material from which vitamin A is made.
There are different forms of this carotene but one which is changed into vitamin A is commonly present in green vegetables, pasture plants, and milk. It is important to realize, however, that while vitamin A is made from carotene in the cow’s body, the color and the carotene content of the milk are not necessarily an indication of its vitamin content.
Thus Jersey or Guernsey milk which may be deep cream in color may be no richer in vitamin A than Ayrshire or Friesian milk. Vitamin D, another vitamin which is associated with certain fats, is a prevention of rickets.
The name given to it is calciferol, or the calcium bearer. It aids the body in the formation of bone structure and though the body may be possessed of ample mineral substances which go in to the formation of bone, unless vitamin D is present in sufficient quantity bone formation may be defective.
The content of vitamin D butters is definitely lower in the winter than in the summer. It is not known yet whether the bathing of the cow’s body in the bright sunlight actually increases the vitamin D content in butterfat although there is some possibility that this is the case.
Milk is not naturally very rich in any vitamin other than A, but it is rich in this one. Vitamin E, which is the last of the know fat soluble vitamins, has been found essential for reproduction with some species of rats, but the extension of this value to other animals has not been conclusively proved.
With regard to vitamin C, perhaps more is known about the composition of this vitamin than any other. Its chemical composition is accurately known. This vitamin prevents scurvy and chemically it is a substance known as Ascorbic acid.
It is present to a notable extent in green vegetables, tomatoes, and in the juice of certain limes but is present to only a comparatively small amount in milk. Fresh fruits and oranges particularly are rich in vitamin C, and in order to meet the child’s needs when fed pasteurized milk, orange juice is also given.
There is a group of food materials which may be roughly described as fibrous and which give bulk to a ration and have certain favorable effects with both animals and human beings in the normal, movement of foodstuffs through the body. This indirect value is of much importance.
The bran parts of wheat, besides being rich in phosphates and containing a considerable amount of the proteins present in wheat, are rich in fiber and are of direct value in the stimulation of peristalsis. The fibrous parts of green vegetables have a similar use.
In order to make up a suitable diet all these classes of foodstuffs need to be incorporated and the researchers has emphasized the importance of incorporating meat fish, milk. eggs, cheese, butter, fresh and green vegetables, fruit and potatoes in a satisfactory dietary for an adult human being.